Early Access Coffee on the Blockchain

Early Access Coffee on the Blockchain

Supply chains are one great usecase for Blockchain and DLT; tracing coffee beans to be able to assert the provence of their origin is just one example.

It's also a very bad pun to bridge to Java (the language).

Being a long time Java Developer (Java 1.1.3 anybody?) I'm pleased to be able to write this short guide to using Java with the Fabric Smart Contract programming model. The updated programming model was first delivered within Hyperledger Fabric in Node.js (JavaScript & TypeScript) alongside a prototype Golang implementation.
It is now available for Java developers to use - Smart Contracts AND client applications can now be written using Java 8.

This is all freshly 'brewed' code available in the last couple of weeks - so please handle with care and report back issues. We'll be wanting to 'roast' another batch of JARs very soon, so feedback via RocketChat or JIRA Issues is appreciated.

So put the coffee on (or other beverage to suit) and let's review what's available, (with no more coffee puns). Note that this is an overview of what's available and where, and not fully in-depth tutorial. Please treat the Java Contract elements and Gateway SDK as 'beta' - feedback more than welcome. See the links below.

TL;DR The updated Contract programming model can be written using Java in Hyperledger Fabric! Please treat the Java Contract elements and Gateway SDK as 'beta' - feedback more than welcome. See the links below.

Quick Links

Maven Repositories

For the Smart Contract use this dependency (shown in Gradle format, Maven is fine as well)

repositories {
    mavenLocal()
    mavenCentral()
    maven {
        url 'https://jitpack.io'
    }
}

dependencies {
    compile group: 'org.hyperledger.fabric-chaincode-java', name: 'fabric-chaincode-shim', version: '1.4.2'
    compile group: 'org.json', name: 'json', version: '20180813'
}

For Applications, use these dependencies (shown here in Maven format, Gradle is fine as well)

    <repositories>
        <repository>
            <id>hyperledger</id>
            <name>Hyperledger Nexus</name>
            <url>https://nexus.hyperledger.org/content/repositories/snapshots</url>
        </repository>

        <repository>
            <id>jitpack.io</id>
            <url>https://jitpack.io</url>
        </repository>
    </repositories>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.hyperledger.fabric-gateway-java</groupId>
            <artifactId>fabric-gateway-java</artifactId>
            <version>1.4.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </dependency>

        <!-- Used for datatype annotations only -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.hyperledger.fabric-chaincode-java</groupId>
            <artifactId>fabric-chaincode-shim</artifactId>
            <version>${fabric-chaincode-java.version}</version>
            <scope>compile</scope>
        </dependency>

        <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.json/json -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.json</groupId>
            <artifactId>json</artifactId>
            <version>20180813</version>
        </dependency>

    </dependencies>

API References

Code Repositories

The main code is held in Gerrit, but is mirrored (read-only) into GitHub. Issues should be raised in JIRA not Github.

Feedback

Either contact us via RocketChat, or via JIRA issues - for example new features ideas can be added under this Epic

Very Quick recap on the programming model

Contracts are defined within their own classes, with a variety of methods on them of your choice. A number of these Contracts can be run inside the Chaincode container that is managed in Fabric 1.4 by the Peer. When a client application (via a SDK) requests a transaction be executed, the appropriate method on the appropriate contract class will be executed. The resultant read/write set will be processed by the Orderer and Peers before being written to the ledger.

At a high level, Smart Contracts are written based around 'Contract Classes' with 'Transaction Function' implementations. These are then invoked by the client application.

Language and software versions

Smart Contracts The minimum Java version being targetted is Java 8; using the Gradle 4.6 or Maven build system. A consequence of the JavaEnv docker image that is used to run the code, is that the version of Java and Gradle has to match. i.e. Java 8 and Gradle 4.6. Also the style of the overall contract has to follow certain conventions.

Application Client Again the minimum is Java 8, with either Gradle or Maven or other build system of your choice.

Getting some code

Let's get some code immediately and look at how it can be used with Hyperledger Fabric. Clone the following repo from github and load it up into your favourite editor.

git clone https://github.com/hyperledgendary/hackathon-starter.git
cd hackathon-starter

This is divided into two folders, firstly let's look in basic-contract/java-contract

  • gradle.build

    A standard gradle build using the 'uber-jar' approach to pull all the dependencies together using the com.github.johnrengelman.shadow

    The important dependencies are

       compile group: 'org.hyperledger.fabric-chaincode-java', name: 'fabric-chaincode-shim', version: '1.4.2'
       compile group: 'org.json', name: 'json', version: '20180813'
    

    Lastly, the main class of the JAR MUST be set to

    manifest {
        attributes 'Main-Class': 'org.hyperledger.fabric.contract.ContractRouter'
    }
    
  • Contract source is in the src/main/org/example/, with Test code using Junit 5 is in src/test/java/org/example/

This is a very simple Smart Contract, with the logic in MyAssetContract.java and the asset definition being handled in MyAsset.java.

SmartContract Logic

As displayed in MyAssetContract.java, a single Contract MUST have the following:

  • A class that implements the ContractInterface
  • Two annotations @Contract(...) that defines information about the contract, eg license author, etc. and @Default that defines this contract as the default should further ones be added later
  • Each class must have at least one transaction function (it could have none, but wouldn't be very useful). These are marked by another annotation, @Transaction

To look briefly at one of these transaction functions:

    @Transaction()
    public boolean myAssetExists(Context ctx, String myAssetId) {
        byte[] buffer = ctx.getStub().getState(myAssetId);
        return (buffer != null && buffer.length > 0);
    }

The first argument is a Context - this is a transactional context that contains information specific to the currently executing Fabric Transaction. It is through this object that the APIs to access the ledger are available. In this case a getState(..) call.

There are more functions, for read, create, update etc.

MyAsset

This Smart Contract is adding a very simple asset to the ledger. The asset is represented by a single class in this case, in a format very similar to a Java Bean.

In order for Fabric to handle objects passed to and from the functions, and for interop between say a TypeScript application and Java Contract, we need to mark the complex (non-primitive) datatypes with an annotation:

import org.hyperledger.fabric.contract.annotation.DataType;

@DataType()
public class MyAsset {
    ...
}

Each property that is important for storing in the ledger or passing back to the application should be marked with @Property(). In this case, the asset is very simple with a single String field:

    @Property()
    private String value;

Compiling the Java Contract

At this point, you can test the building of the contract:

./gradlew build shadowJar

Application

If we now look at the Java Application and go through it in a similar manner, it can be found in basic-applications/java-app

The build.gradle file here is similar, though is setup to build an application. The exact manner of the build style is up to you, the key elements being the dependencies.

In this case,

    dependencies {
        ...
        implementation 'org.hyperledger.fabric-gateway-java:fabric-gateway-java:1.4.0-SNAPSHOT'
        ...
    }

The application is contained within a single file, org.example.App.java, to break this application down to it's important sections.

Firstly we need to locate a 'wallet', and the 'connection profile' to let the application connect with the correct identity.

    String rootDir = "./_cfg";
    // Create a new file system based wallet for managing identities.
    Path walletPath = Paths.get(rootDir,"local_fabric_wallet");
    Wallet wallet = Wallet.createFileSystemWallet(walletPath);

    Path networkConfigPath = Paths.get(rootDir,"local_fabric_connection.json");

We won't cover creating those resources here, the easiest way to get those within a development context is to use the IBM Blockchain Platform VS Code Extension.

Next, use a builder pattern to take the configuration information ahead of the first 'connect':

    Gateway.Builder builder = Gateway.createBuilder();
    builder.discovery(true);
    builder.identity(wallet, "admin").networkConfig(networkConfigPath);

    try (Gateway gateway = builder.connect()) {
        // ....

    } catch (Exception ex) {
      ex.printStackTrace();
    }

Using the try-with-resources construct we can connect to the Fabric infrastructure via the builder. The 'admin' identity here is hard-coded for ease of explanation.

Within the try block we can code the invocation of the transaction functions:

    // create a gateway connection
    try (Gateway gateway = builder.connect()) {

      // get the network and contract
      System.out.println("+++ Getting network");
      Network network = gateway.getNetwork("mychannel");

      System.out.println("+++ Getting contract");
      Contract contract = network.getContract("MyJavaContract");

      byte[] result = contract.evaluateTransaction("readMyAsset", "001");
      System.out.println(new String(result));

    } catch (Exception ex) {
      ex.printStackTrace();
    }

This code gets the network (defined in the basic development Fabric infrastructure as 'mychannel'), and connects to the Contract named 'MyJavaContract'. Finally it invokes the 'readMyAsset' transaction function.

That is the end of the application.

Summary so far

To recap on what's been covered so far, we have a Smart Contract that has been coded in Java. This is working on an asset MyAsset, and has basic create, update, delete style transaction functions. These can be accessed from a client application using a Java SDK.

Important points are are that

  • The language of the application need not be the same as the Contract.
  • Either Gradle or Maven can be used as build processes for the Contract or Application
  • Make note of the dependencies that are needed, specifically the main-class for the Contract

Where to go next

The next step is starting Fabric, deploying the Contract and running applications against it. That's the subject of a follow-on document for this repo.

The easiest way to achieve this is to use the Blockchain Extension for VS Code:

  code --install-extension ibmblockchain.ibm-blockchain-platform

This currently has support for low level Java Chaincode, and can therefore be used to work with the higher level API.

For a command line approach to driving and installing Java Contracts, take a look at the Commercial Paper tutorial and the matching fabric-samples repo. If you want to use the Commercial Paper sample - going through the very detailed Node.js tutorial is a good idea first.

One thought on “Early Access Coffee on the Blockchain

  1. Thanks for this article! Very excited to get access to this functionality. Can you confirm that mixing-and-matching languages between application and chaincode is supported across all possible combinations? Is there an established timeframe for Go lang chaincode support of the new model, or if not, a ballpark timeline?

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